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Currently, the article "Big Almaty gorge" transmitted for translation into English
Virtually anywhere in the city, except for the western regions at the end of streets, oriented to the south, to the mountains, you can see the top, which shape resembles a huge pyramid.
This is Big Almaty Peak. The gorges that envelopes top are visible on the right and left of the pyramid. Almaty Gorge on the left, Ozernoe gorge on the right side. Merging at the northern foot of the Big Almaty Peak, Ozernoe and Almaty rivers give rise to the Big Almaty gorge. In fact, it can not be considered gorge mainly in the Union, as it has a length of about 3 kilometers from the junction to exit the valley. It has received its name from the valley of the peak, since forming at the northern foot of the Big Almaty Peak. Given this, we can safely say that the lake, which is located in the Ozernoe gorge, has no right to be called the Big Almaty Lake, especially because it has own beautiful,secular name Zhosalykol. But later about the lake.
We begin the description of the objects of the gorge in the direction from north to south. The construction of antimudflow dam, which is located where the river Big Almaty flows to the valley, was completed in 1980, but the powerful mudslides in the past 80s indicated that the dam is necessary to significantly strengthen and increase its height. Construction resumed and in the early 90s dam acquired its modern form. Now it has a height of 40m and a length of 422 meters along the ridge.
The road into the gorge in a short tunnel passes through the dam. After 300 meters right of the road, at the mouth of rivers flowing from the collapse of the "Stone Flower", was a settlement in which Chechen families lived, interned during the war in Kazakhstan. In 1954 they were allowed to return home, and many families had to go to the point when mudflow came out of "The Stone Flower" in one of the nights of July, almost destroyed the village with the rest of the residents there.
Landslide "Stone Flower" was formed as a result of the catastrophic earthquake in 1911. Propulsion then reached 10 points on a scale of that time. Kaskabas mountainsides collapsed into the gorge. On a three-chamber collapses formed canyon extant. Collapse eventually overgrown with trees and bushes, thickets of apricot, rose walnut grove, there were thickets of wild apples and rose hips. Landslide particularly beautiful in autumn when the plants bloom all the colors of the rainbow.
At the mouth of the gorge is located a falcon nursery "Sunkar", where grown falcons Balaban, and there is a mini-zoo and playground, which is the perfect place for a vacation with children. There is also the ecological post Ile-Alatau Park. Opposite the "Stone Flower" is the valley Tersbutak. In the middle of the gorge is a modern recreation "Hotel Kumbel" and above at the gorge is a year-round vacation for spot lovers of mountain travel - tract "Kokzhailyau" (blue pasture). The recreation complex "Tau dastarkhan" is located a kilometer above on the left of the road.
Near the confluence of the rivers Ozernaya and Almaty is the final stop of the city bus number 28. On the right bank of the Big Almatinka is number 2 of HPP of HPP cascade, built in the late 40s by Japanese prisoners. From the high ridge descends down the feed pipe water for turbine power. Village of power engineers is now called the city of craftsmen, as empty premises were given to entrepreneurs engaged in national folk crafts. You can buy various souvenirs in this village.
The Lake flows through the gorge river of the same name, which has two sources formed by the melting of glaciers flowing down from the main ridge of Ili Alatau. The main source originates from the foot of the Tourists pass (4000 m, 1A). The second source starts right on the pass Ozernoe. Circus river Ozernoe occupies a large lido area elongated in the latitudinal direction from east to west. The valley begins from the south, as already mentioned, from the main ridge of the Ili Alatau. To the east is limited Small Almaty spur and its ramifications in the west - Big Almaty spur. This spur has a small length of about 14 km, and ends with the Big Almaty Peak. The river has two tributaries: Kumbelsu and Ayusai rivers.
Little Almaty spur also not so extended. The first six kilometers of its watershed are between the headwaters of Ozernoe and Left Talgar rivers. The boundary of the Ozernoe gorge turns west, passes the ridge Kumbel and ends at the top Kumbel.
Let's go back to the confluence. The good asphalt road in the gorge is going to the research station at the pass Zhusaly-Kezen.
Gorge Ozernoe affects its size. The lower part of the gorge near hydroelectric number 1 has depth of more than one kilometer. Slopes are steep and difficult, covered spruce forest. After 3 kilometers from this place - the mouth of the river Ayusai is flowing in a narrow, deep and rugged gorge. Group of the sculptures "Three Bears" can serve as a reference .
If you walk 500 meters to the west, in the direction of the gorge Ayusai (Bear's log), you will see a waterfall of about 5 meters. Previously, it was twice as high, but in the 60s of the last century occurred collapse left the rocky slope reduced its height. From the waterfall on the trail walking up the gorge, which begins to narrow and turns into a small and deep rocky canyon at the end of which is another affordable to visit a waterfall. It drains from the rocky ledge has a height of about 8-9 meters. Slopes surrounding the waterfall are impassable and dangerous, so do not try to go through them, it's deadly.
Above the Ayusai gorge is the village hydroelectric number 1. This development emerged in the second half of the 40s of the last century. It was built by Gulag camp that housed prisoners of the Japanese. Japanese prisoners of war built hydropower cascade Almaty. They struck a tunnel from hydroelectric number 1 to the top ridge of the HPP number 2, from which the water falls through the pipe down to the hydroelectric turbines. Tunnel operates in the present. They also built a pipeline from the lake to the hydroelectric number 7 in the village Pyatiletka, which is located at the exit of the gorge. I deliberately wrote "built" and not paved. The fact that the tubes of one meter in diameter were produced on the spot of wooden slats on manufacturing drums. Massed pipe metal hoops at a distance of 20 cm from each other. This frequency hoops dictated tremendous pressure water pipe walls. The length of the wooden pipe was more than 15 km. Pipes naturally weren’t absolutely airtight, they trickled water, and sometimes appeared small fountains, which was nice to cool off during the climb along the pipe. Wooden pipes were replaced with metal in the late 60s of the last century.
After the liberation the Japanese camp was turned into a colony for juvenile delinquents, and then Holiday House "Kommunalnik." Currently private seating areas housed here, but evidence of past years still preserved. Thus, in the lower part of the village behind a high fence still stands insulator building with cameras for prisoners. Until the 50s of the last century the village was just above the falls. Now there were only nullah, because the water began to take for the needs of hydropower and water supply of the city.
Gorge Ozernoe blocks a huge natural dam formed 10,000 years ago. A powerful earthquake with slopes of Big Almaty peak descended grand collapse, blocking the gorge. Striking dimensions of this dam - height from the base to the top ridge is 500 m, and the length along the riverbed of 2.5 km.
A pipeline built through the body of the dam, supplying water from a great height of the upstream turbine cascade lake on small hydropower. The road skirting the village hydroelectric number 1 begins to be understood serpentine of the dam, to cross the dangerous gorge Kumbelsu. In the 80s every year went catastrophic mudflows through the gorge, destroying everything in its path: bridges, pylons, roads. The gorge is difficult passable, but on it sports tourist routes were built. Through the pass in the Tuyuksu glacier you can walk from the gorge, and the output of Kumbelsu to the Ozernoe gorge. On the east side there is a Trapeze Pass (3240 m, n / k). You can get into the upper river Tersbutak through the pass, then the top Kumbel and Kokzhaylyau plateau.
After the gorge road passes to the body of the dam and also serpentine climbs up to Big Almaty Lake. The length of the road is 13 km.
About 500 meters from the exit of the gorge Kumbelsu is a tourist base "Alpine Rose". Above base in the southeast is a beautiful glade Shukur, gave the name of a small canyon, running from the foot of the peak Satpayev. With this glade runs short trail leading to the upper Kumbelsu. To the south of the clearing stands a cult for youth tourism peak-Jumbo Jumbo (3332 m), so named during one of the gatherings of youth tourism in the mid 60s of the last century.
Immediately behind the dam at the height of 2506 m above sea level, is the pearl of the gorge - a turquoise lake. It stretched in deep basin formed after the collapse. Now this lake is more known as the Big Almaty Lake, so called not because of its size, and the title of the gorge. In olden times it bore the name of the lake Zhosalykol, ie "Ocher", his red color peak Crumb, swim in the lake its slopes. In the 30s of the last century on the lake riding in boats, it was a favorite place of citizens. Since transportation is rarely went into the gorge, the townspeople went there on foot.
This lake is surprisingly game of colored water. During the day, it varies from the azure and turquoise to deep ultramarine. Above the lake rise the majestic peaks in the west - Big Almaty Peak, it is not like a giant pyramid, visible from the city; the southeast across the lake is visible snowy pyramid of Kanysh Satpayev (formerly Peak Councils) and in the south, as if closing the gorge seen snow dome, resembling "sugar loaf" - Ozyorny.
On the lake functioning scientific base and geographical base for Astrophysics Institute. Fesenkov and avalanche station of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Slightly above the lake on the remains of an ancient landslide is the State Institute for Astrophysics. RF Sternberg, or as they say, SAI. There are also border guards guarding the state border runs along the ridge Ile Alatau.
Beautiful silvery dome and satellite dish observatory give a unique view of the gorge presence of an extraterrestrial civilization.
Serpentine tarmac road climbs high on the slope and leads to the pass ZhosalyKezen where at an altitude of 3336 meters is the Tien Shan alpine scientific station Physics Institute. PN Academy of Sciences, studying cosmic rays, better known as the Space station. With Cosmostation you can climb Big Almaty Peak located on the north side of the pass, which offers panoramic view on the upper reaches of Lakeside and Almaty. Perfectly clear and Ili valley with Kapchagai and Almaty.
From the pass you can climb to the peak and tourist destination, located south of perevala.S tops overlooking the mountainous part of the Marsh River.
Beyond the lake offers extensive alpine valley surrounded by snow-capped peaks. Valley - this is a huge alpine meadows with beautiful multi-colored grass.
In the western part of the circus, in the main ridge of Trans-Ili Alatau, located tops Lake, Choybolsan (political leader of Mongolia in 1930), Almaty Almaty Alagir Alagiri pass that displays in the upper valley of Almaty (Flow) right in front of the pass Almaty.
On the north side of the circus with ancient moraines, covered with green alpine meadows, located vershinaBauyrzhana Momyshuly (peak Eaves), named in honor of the Hero of the Soviet Union, Panfilov, party battle for Moscow, pikiTurani Crumb. In the north-west of the peak Turannahodyatsya peak tourist and pass Zhosaly Kosen.
From the slopes of the peak of the Lake down a huge stone weight - rock glaciers, because of the unusual shape called "Glove".